Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated: BiH) is a country in southeastern Europe, in the west of the Balkan Peninsula. From the north, west and south-west it is bordered by Croatia and Serbia in the east. In the southeast, it borders with Montenegro.
The territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been inhabited since the Neolithic period, since there were settlements Celtic and Illyrian civilization. Culturally, politically and socially, it is one of the most historic lands in the region. The land was first settled by Slavic peoples from the 6th to the 9th century. On its territory, the first independent duchies in the region, Bosanska duchies were founded – the beginning of the 12th century, by the people, which were called the good Bosnians.
Bosnia-Herzegovina is regionally and internationally for its natural beauty and cultural heritage, cuisine, versatile and unique music, architecture and its festivals, some of which are among the best known and largest of its kind in Eastern Europe.
Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of two geographic and historic parts: the Bosnian part in the north (about 40 000 km2) and smaller herzegowischen in the south. Bosnia is mainly mountain country. The same also applies to Herzegovina, but with the difference that it is a different surface.
In the north, the mountains extend down to the hills of Posavina. Dinara Mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina extends from west to east. Herzegovina consists of two parts: the mountains and the Adriatic Sea. There are several levels which propagate along the river valleys (Una, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina). From south to north, or in the case of the Neretva River from north to south. A special form of the landscape consists of spacious karst areas in the southwest, south and southeast (Livno, Duvno, Popovo field).
The climate in Bosnia and Herzegovina is moderately continental, with warm summers and cold winters. Areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long harsh winter. On the coast and in the south of the country winters are relatively warm and rainy.
Although it is a relatively small and young country, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich culture that has sometimes had a great influence on other Balkan countries and on the whole world. Bosnia and Herzegovina is with Hungary is the only country in the region that has more than one winner of the prestigious Nobel Prize Vladimir Prelog got it for Chemistry and Ivo Andric for Literature. The capital Sarajevo hosted the 14th Winter Olympic Games.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a unique and specific architecture. Through many cultural influences, the country has during its thousand-year existence and the fact that it was a long time in its history, a kind of boundary between the western and eastern (oriental) space, it represents an unparalleled feature.